Technical Graphics - Syllabus
||The general aim of education is to contribute towards
the development of all aspects of the individual,
including aesthetic, creative, critical, cultural,
emotional, intellectual, moral, physical, political,
social and spiritual development, for personal and
family life, for working life, for living in the
community and for leisure.
||The Junior Certificate programme aims to
- reinforce and further develop in the young person
the knowledge, understanding, skills and
competencies acquired at primary level;
- extend and deepen the range and quality of the
young person's educational experience in terms of
knowledge, understanding, skills and competencies;
- develop the young person's personal and social
confidence, initive and competence through a broad,
well - balanced general education;
- prepare the young person for the requirements of
further programmes of study, of employment or of
life outside full - time education;
- contribute to the moral and spiritual development
of the young person and to develop a tolerance and
respect for the values and beliefs of others;
- prepare the young person for the responsibilities
of citizenship in the national context and in the
context of the wider European Community.
||The Junior Certificate programme is based on the
following principles :
- breadth and balance : in the final phase
of compulsary schooling, every young person should
have a wide range of educational experiences.
Perticular attention must be given to reinforcing
and developing the skills of numeracy, literacy and
oracy. Particular emphasis should be given to social
and enviornmental education, science and technology
and modern languages.
- relevance : curriculum provision should
address the immediate and prospective needs of the
young person, in the context of the cultural,
economic and social enviornment.
- quality : every young person should be
challenged to achieve the highest possible standards
of excellence, with due regard to different
aptitudes and abilities and to international
The curriculum should provide a wide range of
educational expieriences within a supportive and
formative enviornment. It should draw on the aesthetic
and creative, the ethetical, the linguistic, the
mathematical, the physical, the scientific and the
technological, the social, enviornmental and political
and the spiritual domains.
||Each Junior Certificate syllabus is presented for
implementation within the general curriculum context
The course aims to develop the creative imagination
by encouraging pupils to reason in two and
three-dimensions and by applying these abilities to the
solution of graphical and spatial problems of an
abstract and practical nature. The cognitive and
practical skills developed will act as a stimulus in
helping pupils to 'see' their enviornment with critical
and analyitcal awareness and will enhance their
Proficiency at freehand drawing is seen as
particularly desireable not just as a means of
communication but also as an interactive element in
imagining and spatial modelling. The body of knowledge
and skills associated with graphicacy will allow the
pupil to interpret and communicate information and ideas
graphically thereby encouraging competency in the
universal language of design and technology.
The course is also seen as an ideal vehicle for
developing computer graphics skills and introducing
computer aided design graphics. Graphical design
problems in two and three-dimensions will allow the
pupils to experiment with shape and form, shade and
colour. The modelling of solutions, in card or other
materials, will contribute to an enjoyable and creative
learning experience. Pupils interaction will be
encouraged through group activity assignments in
measuring and scaling and the production of graphical
solutions either pictorially or through orthographic
projection, (the geometry of representation).
The course provides a unique range of skills and
techniques at junior cycle and is a foundation course
for senior cycle Technical Drawing. The course will also
act as a contributing discipline to all technology based
subjects and to any subject which uses graphics and/or
cognitive functions such as holistic reasoning and image
AIMS OF THE COURSE
(a) To stimulate the pupils creative imagination
through developing their visual spatial abilities.
(b) To encourage the development of the cognitive and
practical manipulative skills associated with
(c) To provide pupils with a body of knowledge
appropriate to interpreting and communicating spatial
information and ideas.
(d) To sharpen the pupils visual perception of their
environment and its elements and encourage the
exercising of aesthetic value judgments.
(e) To develop basic competency in computer graphics
in the context of graphical problem solving and computer
(f) To encourage the development of logical and
progressive reasoning and enquiry/investigative skills
and the ability to spatialise and visualise two and
three dimensional configurations and their elements in
the solution of graphical problems.
(g) To help pupils understand the importance of
communicating information graphically.
The pupils will be able to:-
* Use graphics in the development of ideas and in the
communication of information.
* Interpret drawings and diagram including freehand
sketches,plans, numerical data (expressed graphically),
flow charts and formal working drawings.
* Solve two and three-dimensional space problems
graphically using appropriate geometries and their
underlying principles and theorems.
* Demonstrate dexterity in the use of drawing
instruments, templates etc. as reflected in neatness and
* Display an understanding of the projection systems
associated with descriptive geometry.
* Select appropriate methods of graphic
representation in expressing spatial ideas and concepts.
* Show a basic understanding of input, processing and
output systems associated with computers.
* Produce computer generated drawings and graphical
solutions using appropriate computer graphics and
computer aided desktop software.
* Produce neat and accurate drawings according to
recognised standards, conventions and illustration
* Co-operate in the assimilation of data necessary
for scaled representation.
* Produce freehand drawings in two and
three-dimensions as graphical communication and as an
aid to spatial reasoning and refinement.
* Recognise the importance of graphics in the process
of designing and produce graphical solutions to
appropriate design problems.
* Use shade and colour with discretion and model
appropriate solutions in card or other materials.
* Apply ergonomic and other appropriate data in the
consideration and solution of design problems.
The course content is arranged under the headings of
topics and subtopics, many of which are directly
interrelated. The following are seen as the main areas
of study; plane geometry, descriptive geometry and
communication graphics (including design presentation
and computer aided design/graphics). Freehand drawing is
seen as in integral skill in all these areas as well as
a stimulus to spatial reasoning The first year of the
course will consist of basic modules taken from a
variety of topics and will be a foundation course for
the following two years. While the material content of
the first year modules will in the main be common to
both higher and ordinary levels, this will be structured
so as to allow pupils to work at their own level of
ability The emphasis in the first year should be on
material of an applied nature based on appropriate
geometric principles and be such as to stimulate pupils
interest and curiosity.
At the end of the first year pupils will have
acquired basic graphic communication skills and
techniques. They should also appreciate the significance
of graphics in ~ordering' space, their unique value in
communicating information and ideas as well as their
intrinsic beauty, particularly in graphical design.
NOTE : underlined elements apply to higher level only.
3.1 CONVENTIONS AND STANDARDS
Pupils are expected to adhere to current
standards, conventions and practices associated with
drawing and illustration. (8. S. schools and colleges
versions or I.S.O. equivalents would be appropriate)
However bearing in mind the creative/problem solving
nature of the subject, these should not be applied so
rigidly as to stifle individual flair. Pupils should be
familiar with the following:
3.2 PLANE GEOMETRY
Apart from its discrete value in problem solving this
area will serve to support all other areas of the
syllabus. The geometry and constructions should where
possible be taught in the context of concrete
applications. All constructions should be supported by
the appropriate axiom or theorem as listed in the
Basic geometric constructions.
Construction of plane and diagonal scales.
The mean proportional.
3.2.2 PLANE FIGURES
Construction and geometric properties of:
The Circle (incl. tangency).
Construction, basic properties and applications of
the ellipse and parabola.
(excluding reference to eccentricity).
To include the plotting of loci under specified
constraints in relation to fixed points, curves and
lines in one plane.
The plotting and identification of ellipse and parabola as plane loci in problem solving.
3.2.4 TRANSFORMATION GEOMETRY
This area deals with geometric transformations,
either singly or combined. as applied to problem
Reflections (central and axial symmetry)
Enlargements and reductions
Examples of above in nature and design.
3.2.5 AREAS OF FIGURES
This should be dealt with by applying appropriate
Euclidian theorems and/or transformation geometry
Determination and division of polygonal areas
Conversion of rectilinear figures to equivalent
Approximate determination of areas with curved
3.3 DESCRIPTIVE GEOMETRY
This area is of particular importance in developing
pupils ability in visual imagery and representation.
Projections should initially be dealt with in a
deductive manner without reference to projection
systems, but with a knowledge of planes of reference.
The sequencing of the material and teaching techniques
should gradually develop spatial abilities relating to
imagery, orientation, and visualization. Pupils should
as a result be able to build clear images of objects in
space and accurately represent these in two-dimensions.
The complexity of image and representation will vary
according to level and ability Although the final
solution to problems in this area will normally be
represented in measured drawings, pupils should be
competent in representing these through freehand
drawings and sketches.
3.3.1 ORTHOGRAPHIC PROJECTION
Considering that orthographic projection is an
abstraction which allows accurate representation of
objects in three-dimensional space1 teaching strategies
should aim at bridging the gap between concrete and
abstract spatial reasoning. Therefore to assist
visualisation the 'objects' represented in the
projection should where possible relate to pupil
interest and experience. For the purpose of this
syllabus the axes of geometric forms should generally
not be inclined to more than one plane of reference and
solids with oblique axes are not considered.
Planes of reference.
Projections in 1st and/or 3rd angle (HL. pupils
conversant with both)
Interpretation of given data.
Working and design drawings.
First auxiliary projections.
Rotation of solid objects.
Rebatment of surfaces.
Traces, true lengths and inclinations of lines and
True shape of surfaces.
Solids in contact.
Intersection of surfaces (see also developments).
Elementary treatment of shadow and shade with
parallel light rays.
3.3.2 PICTORIAL DRAWING AND PROJECTION
This area should be covered in two modules, (a)
pictorial views of objects on given ayes and without
reference to projection systems and axonometric planes,
and (b) projections within the classification of
projection systems and the framework of axonometric
||Oblique and planometric views.
|Simple perspective with arbitrary vanishing
points (one and two point).
|Orthographic from pictorial and visa-versa.
||Axonometric projections to include.
|Isometric projection with reference to
(include use of isometric scales).
3.3.3 SCALED DRAWING
Pupils will learn to solve problems associated
with representing on paper or monitor items of small and
large dimensions. In the main concrete examples should
be used such as room or garden layout, record stylus.
etc The area also provides opportunity for group
activity and co-operation through measuring and
recording data, design of scales etc in connection with
buildings, classroom layout location maps and so on.
Design of scales
Scale rules. (Standard metric scales)
Scaled representation including working and design
3.3.4 SURFACE DEVELOPMENT
Orthographic projection including true length of
lines and edges and true shape of surface will
contribute to this In the initial module however complex
shapes requiring rotation or rebatment should be avoided
Any of these solutions may be modeled. (see also
Right solids and their frusta.
Composite solids (see also intersection of
3.4 COMMUNICATION GRAPHICS
Material from this area of study will permeate all
other elements. The subtopics should provide a stimulus
for creative thought and provide a basis for expression
of ideas and information through the application of the
illustration/communication skills and techniques
acquired. It will also help the pupils to relate to the
graphic environment they are constantly exposed to.
3.4.1 FREEHAND DRAWING AND SKETCHING
It is intended that this area should contribute to
the development of the pupils intra and extra-personal
communication skills and techniques and encourages
sketching as a stimulus in the thinking process The use
of a variety of media is recommended. These should
include squared isometric grid and other suitable
Sketching skills and techniques
Two and Three dimensional graphic representation
Shading and texturing
Colour as an enhancement
(See also graphical design)
3.4.2 GRAPHICS IN DESIGNING
Sketching and drawing are at the core of the process
of designing and so these visual images are of
particular importance in developing and refining ideas
The pupils creativity will be encouraged through
appreciating the problems associated with designing
proposing solutions on paper and modelling these where
188.8.131.52 THE PROCESS OF DESIGNING
The pupils will acquire an overview of the design
process with particular emphasis on associated graphics.
Pupils will be helped to appreciate the visual
qualities of objects with particular reference to
shape/form and proportion Examples should include the
geometry of form and proportion in nature and in
Analysis and evaluation of design problems
Acquiring and using data (shape, volume ergonomics,
Presentation of solution
184.108.40.206 MODELLING OF SOLUTIONS
This activity will contribute to the development
of the pupils spatial abilities through interplay
between if e drawing and the visuo-tactile stimuli.
Pupils will be encouraged to model appropriate solutions
using card or other materials. Design and execution of
packaging solutions is seen as making a significant
contribution. Surface development is a prerequisite and
integral part of this activity.
The following are examples of solutions
appropriate to modelling :
Regular and semi-regular polyhedra.
Packaging problems including appraisal and
Development and execution of packaging solutions.
Projection planes and systems.
Loci and simple linkages as models.
220.127.116.11 GRAPHICAL DESIGN AND REPRESENTATION
This element will contribute to the pupils ability
to graphically symbolise information and ideas, and will
facilitate clear communication a well as rapid
interpretation of comparative data and statistics. While
the main focus will be on design and representation in
two-dimensions, working in three dimensions is to be
Geometric pattern drawing.
Graphical symbols including Pictograms, Monograms,
Graphical representation of numerical data including:
Graphs, Histographs, Pictographs, Bar and Pie charts
3.4.3 COMPUTER GRAPHICS
It is intended that this area of the programme
will give pupils an understanding of the computer as a
tool in graphical communication and design. The pupils
should get 'hands on' experience in using the computer
to solve real problems of graphic presentation,
communication and design. A basic understanding of
'input', 'processing' and 'output' devices is expected
as well as some knowledge of contemporary hardware and
appropriate software. While a knowledge of a programming
language would be desirable this is seen as
discretionary The following should be included.
Input output, arid processing hardware.
Loading and saving programs.
Graphics and CAD programs.
Generation of graphics and drawings
Printing and plotting.
4.1 ASSESSMENT OBJECTIVES
Pupils should be able to :
(a) Solve problems in two and three dimensional space
using appropriate geometries and principles.
(b) Interpret drawings, diagrams and other graphical
data and 'spatialize' written or oral information.
(c) Select appropriate methods of graphical
communication to represent artifacts, solutions and
(d) Demonstrate neatness and accuracy in drafting
skills and techniques.
(e) Display a knowledge of recognised drawing
standards, conventions and terminology
(f) Use freehand sketches in developing ideas and
solutions, and in representing information
(g) Make working drawings of artifacts from given
(h) Demonstrate an understanding of graphical design
through appropriate representation of ideas
(i) Display an understanding of projection systems
(j) Display a knowledge of basic ergonomics and other
design related data
(k) Produce solutions on paper to appropriate design
(I) Model solutions to appropriate problems (in card
(m) Display a Knowledge of computer input processing
and output systems through the production of hardcopy of
(n) Use the computer to solve space/design problems
(o) Represent numerical and other data graphically.
(p) Use shade and colour appropriately to enhance
drawing and as an aid in clarity and in presentation.
Axioms and Theorems supporting the content of
||If two straight lines intersect, then
vertically opposite angles are equal.
||When a transversal cuts two parallel lines,
then corresponding angles are equal, and alternate
angles are equal.
||Sum of the interior angles in a triangle is 18O°
||The exterior angle at any vertex in a triangle
equals the sum of the two opposite interior angles
||In an isosceles triangle the angles opposite
the equal sides, are themselves equal in measure.
||Bisectors of the angles of a triangle are
concurrent at the "incentre".
||Mediators of the sides of a triangle are
concurrent at the "circumcentre".
||Perpendiculars from the vertices of a triangle
to their opposite sides are concurrent at the
||The medians of a triangle are concurrent at the
||The area of triangles on the same (or equal)
base and between the same two parallels are equal
||The areas of triangles of equal bases are
proportionate to their heights, and the areas of
triangles of equal height are proportionate to the
length of their bases.
||In similar triangles the lengths of
corresponding s des are proportional.
||Theorem of Pythagoras
In any right-angled triangle the area of the
square on the hypotenuse equals the sum of the
areas of the squares on the other two sides.
||Opposite sides and opposite angles in a
parallelogram are equal in measure.
||The diagonals of a parallelogram bisect each
||The diagonals of a rhombus bisect each other
||The diagonal of a parallelogram bisects its
||The mediator of any chord in a circle is a
diameter line of the circle.
||The measure of the angle at the centre of a
circle is twice the measure of the a angle at the
circumference standing on the same (chord).
and its corollaries :
(i) The angle in a semi circle is a right
(ii) The sum of opposite angles in a cyclic
quadrilateral is 180°
(iii) Angles in the same segment of a circle
(iv) The angle between a chord and tangent at
the point of contact, equals the angle a any point
in the opposite segment subtended by the same
||The angle between the diameter of a circle and
a tangent at the point-of-contact is 90°
Theorems in Transformation Geometry
||Parallel projection conserves equality and
proportion of length.
||Translation maps a line onto a parallel line.
||Central symmetry maps a line onto a parallel
||The composition of two central symmetries
(point reflections) is equivalent to a
||The composition of two axial symmetries (line
reflections), in intersecting axes, is equivalent
to a rotation.
||The composition of two axial symmetries in
perpendicular axes is a central symmetry in their
point of intersection.
||The composition of two axial symmetries in
parallel axes is a translation.
||An enlargement naps a line onto a parallel
||Axial symmetry, central symmetry, translations
and their composite mappings are isometries
(conserving measure of length angle and area).
||The composition of translations is both
commutative and associative.
||The composition of reflections is neither
commutative nor associative.
The above information is
available in book form through any Bookseller, or
directly from the GOVERNMENT PUBLICATIONS SALE OFFICE,
SUN ALLIANCE HOUSE, MOLESWORTH STREET, DUBLIN 2.